River Plate is one of the most popular football clubs in Buenos Aires. He became the national champion 34 times, which is a national record. Twice (1986, 1996) the team won the Libertadores Cup, once (1986) – the Intercontinental Cup. River Plate was formed by the merger of two metropolitan clubs under the name “Rosales” and “Santa Rosa” in 1901. An interesting story is the appearance of the famous diagonal stripes on players’ shirts. At one of the carnivals, a group of players and their fans stole a large ribbon of bright red silk, then cut it into strips and attached it to their T-shirts. Until 1931, “River” won only one amateur national championship. After gaining professional status, the club became the leader of Argentine football. The first championship in 1932, “River” won in the fight against Independiente. In the 1930s, the club three times became the champion of the country. In the late 1940s, the River Plate line of attack, which was so productive and well-adjusted that it gained the nickname La Maquina (“car”), brought fear to rivals. But in the 1950s the game of the club became just a benchmark – he won half the championships of that decade. True, the next 17 years, “River” could not become a champion of Argentina. A new era of victories began in 1975. That year both championships were won. And in 1986, the Intercontinental Cup was won. In 2011, “River” first flew out of the examples. However, as early as next season, the club returned to the elite division.
River Plate and the terrible events of the time: 1978 World Cup – when football serves terror
We have one phrase: “Kill as many as necessary to restore order in Argentina” – General Jorge Videla, 1974. Sport has always been a useful tool to hide illegal political actions. Just as Adolf Hitler used the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, military dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, who ruled in Argentina, held the 1978 World Championship, won by Albisileste, which made it possible to divert the attention of the population from cruel and inhuman crimes in the country perpetrated by the military junta, on football, and to extend, thus, stay in power for a few more years.
This article will discuss the Mundial of 78 years. The 1978 World Cup is a clear example of the fact that the concept of “sport without politics” no longer carries any meaning. Sport, and especially football, has been saturated with dirty political games for many years now, with the help of the passion and love of millions of people around the world for these great game, politicians around the world have long been resolving their internal affairs and personal issues. To understand and understand the causes of the “Dirty War”, the arrival of the military to power, you need to know the background of events. I tried briefly (to the extent possible in the context of this issue) to retell events from 1966, from the first overthrow of Juan Peron, to 1976, when the military came to power again and installed one of the harshest dictatorships of the postwar period. For those who are too lazy to read it (and I understand them, since this is still a sports portal), you can immediately scroll to the paragraph “the process of national reorganization”.
No one has yet been able to clearly form the dates for the start of the Civil War, someone calls 1966, when the Levoperonist guerrilla organization “Montoneros” was born, and someone was 1970 when the Trotskyist insurgent “Revolutionary People’s Army of Argentina” was formed. The creation of the “Partisan Center” in 1963 or the establishments in 1959 of the «Uturunkos» were the first Peronist partisan detachment. Or even earlier we can read about events in 1955, when the army overthrew President Peron, which led to hundreds of casualties and a long-term split of Argentina into two irreconcilable camps – Peronist and anti-Peronist. Peron’s supporters, and from the late 1940s to this day constitute a steady 40-50% of Argentines, did not accept the overthrow of their leader, and were ready to kill and die for a prosperous, developed, socially just Motherland – a dream it seemed to have knocked on their doors thanks to the social reforms of the president. The army elite, closely associated with the landowners and exporters of agricultural products, principled democrats from the Civil Radical Union, socialists, dissatisfied with inconsistent, in their opinion, transformations, as well as the Catholic Church (Peron entered into a tough conflict and even created independent of the Vatican National Catholic Church).
After the overthrow of Peron, there was no peace in Argentina. Numerous Peronist, ultra-right and Trotskyist, and later – also Maoist and Hevarist groups, now fighting with each other and with the police, now uniting into the most bizarre ideological and political combinations, kept the country in constant tension. Violence in Argentina had its own ideologues. If right-wing politicians practically did not call for violence openly (which did not prevent their followers from killing with might and main), then many left-wing leaders directly promoted murders, including mass killings. In Latin America as a whole and in Argentina in particular, since the 1930s, Trotskyism has been very strong in the left movement. The perennial leader of the Trotskyist IV International was Argentine Juan Posadas. He was a big freak: he believed in the existence of UFOs and aliens and hoped that those would help earthlings destroy capitalism. In the brochure “Flying saucers, the movement of matter and energy, science and socialism” Posadas wrote: “We must call upon beings from other planets to start cooperating with the inhabitants of the earth and help overcome misfortunes.”
In addition, Comrade preached nuclear war: “Nuclear war is both a revolutionary war. Humanity will quickly move forward through an atomic war to a new human society – socialism. Atomic war is inevitable. It will be doom for half of humanity. It will lead to the death of a huge human heritage. Atomic warfare will turn the Earth into hell. But that will not stop the arrival of communism.” Despite the social and political chaos occurring in the country, in 1964 Argentina’s GDP grew by 10.3%, in 1965 – by 7.1%, unemployment in these years decreased from 8.8 to 5%, real wages increased by 20%. Nevertheless, it was in the year 66 that the overthrow of President Ilia, ruling the country of 1963, came to power, led by General Juan Carlos Ongania. The era of the so-called “First Junta” began. In the early years of rule, the junta abolished the post of vice president and dissolved parliament, provincial legislatures, and all political parties.
“The reasons for the overthrow of the government of the radicals (and this time) were not directly related to economic issues and lay exclusively in the political sphere, reflecting the fierce power struggle between various sectors of the armed forces, major parties and influence groups. Many then had a strong desire, having seized control of the country, to take advantage of the favorable internal and external conjuncture and “steer” the situation, putting under control the main financial flows. This explains the fact that, having come to power, the military junta led by General Ongania was in no hurry to take any drastic steps in the economic field ”- P. Yakovlev“ Before the challenges of time. ”
Under the military regime (1966-73), measures were taken aimed at strengthening the position of foreign capital and the land oligarchy, but at the same time received support from the state sector. As a result, the economy continued to grow: during these years, GDP increased annually by an average of 5%, exports more than doubled, and the share of manufactured goods in its composition increased from 3 to 20%. Housing, roads and power stations were built at a rapid pace. Meanwhile, political passions, having reorganized and gone underground, continued to boil. Leftists (Trotskyists, Maoists, Hevarists) and, rapidly adjoining them, leftist Peronists demanded the nationalization of at least the leading branches of the economy, the expulsion of the “imperialists” and transnational companies, the participation of workers in the management of enterprises (and in the future – the transfer of this management to them) and the agrarian reform. Their slogans found their followers in the lumpen-intelligent people (formed by the population), which in Argentina was more than enough. First of all, they were students and persons of liberal professions. Without thinking, they believed that “supporters of imperialism” rule Argentina that the peasants (whom they saw only from the windows of their own cars) suffer from the burden of the latifundists and the workers almost starve as a result of “inhuman exploitation.”
As further developments showed, the Lumpen movements turned out to be quite enough to turn the country, which, albeit squeaky, but took the path of progress, into complete hell. In 1969, student unrest broke out in Cordoba, the second capital of Argentina, which developed into an uprising known as Cordobazo. Cordova of the mid-60s is one of the most, if not the most developed and prosperous city in the country. It was the center of metallurgy, aviation, automotive and food industries. Unemployment in the city was low. There were no slum areas like metropolitan villas miserias (Spanish, “torment villages”). It all started with the fact that Dictator Carlos Ongania, being convinced ultra-catholic, abolished university autonomy and began a campaign against “immoralist”, banning miniskirts and long hair for men. The students, having read in the newspapers about the last May of Paris a year earlier, which brought ultra-left sentiments of Argentine youth to the peak, took to the streets with slogans against dictatorship and for the restoration of democracy. Rallies turned into riots, which resulted in a huge number of citizens and representatives of the rule of law. Following Cordova, unrest swept through the cities of Mendoza, Rosario, Tucuman (due to the closure of the student canteen), El Chocon and Corrientes. All clashes ended in victims.
After these events, the influence and authority of the dictatorship began to plummet, eventually, having lost its popularity with the elite, Ongania was removed from power and his place was taken by General Alejandro Lanussé. Lanussa understood that the government of the country should be returned smoothly to the democratically elected president and, knowing that the Peronists are the most popular movement, he began negotiations with them, simultaneously contacting with their left-wing “Montoneros”. “Montoneros” is the breakaway left wing of the Peronist movement, which eventually, being influenced by fascism, began to promote “national socialism”. The organization caused delight among Peronists and fear in the hearts of their opponents and confusion among members of the military junta.
A good story for River Plays players: a 6-year-old boy sells toys for the Libertadores Cup final
The Libertadores Cup (similar to the European Champions League) is held among clubs in South America. This year, two Argentine teams reached the final. Probably this will not be found again by any of the living. So the attention to the final is enormous, and tickets are no longer possible to find. Unlike the Champions League, there are two matches in the Libertadores Cup final, one each in the home arena. The first meeting took place at the Bombaner Stadium and ended in a draw – 2: 2. We already wrote about that game. Two days later, the second leg was at the Monumental Stadium (River Plate home arena). Attention to the finals has reached such a level that on Argentine television they constantly talk about football. Even a video appeared, recreating the course of the match with the help of Lego figures.
And there is still a lot of discussion about the touching story of a six-year-old boy named Renzo. He lives in the city of Parana (372 km from Buenos Aires), is a fan of River Plate and wants to get to the historic match. Renzo can only go to the second game, because in the derby tickets are sold only to home fans: to the Bombaner, only to Boca fans, and to Monumental, only to the Rivera fans. Renzo collected toys and laid them on the table near the house. Nearby, a six-year-old boy in a Rivera T-shirt posted a poster: “I sell toys to go to Monumental.” Very soon, this photo became popular in the Argentine Internet, and then throughout the world. Renzo’s act provoked a response even in the Spanish branch of River Plate fans. The head of the branch in Malaga allocated two tickets for the boy and his mother. “Football generates unique feelings and is able to move mountains. How else to explain that Renzo decided to part with the most expensive for the child and this zeal crossed the ocean, meeting people who helped the boy realize his dream, ”wrote the Argentine magazine Ole Nahuel Trasmonte. River Plate is not only football, River Plate is family, love and passion,” we can read a post in the Facebook group of a Spanish fan club.